🖐 Selected Papers from the Conference on Pragmatics in the CJK Classroom

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Similarly, Yang reported that Japanese as a Foreign Language JFL learners thought that the primary function of aizuchi was to express politeness. For example, Ishida found that Australian learners of Japanese often misinterpreted the function of the aizuchi-shi, ee, when it indicated agreement, politeness, or formality. Nodding is included because NSs of English, the subjects of this study, are known to use nodding frequently Maynard, The two forms of aizuchi are analyzed in terms of frequency and functions. In this paper, the term aizuchi is used as it best describes Japanese supportive responses. While these studies reveal a number of problems in acquiring aizuchi, most of them focus on the pattern of acquisition and do not deal with the cause of problems encountered in the course of acquisition other than L1. Two doctoral students in applied linguistics transcribed all of the data. According to Kwak, Japanese attempt to fill the interval with the turn-relinquishing aizuchi until either the speaker or listener starts talking in order to show the intention of continuing to speak. Non-lexical aizuchi are a closed set of short sounds with little or no referential meaning such as ee, soo, aa. Horiguchi classifies aizuchi into three types: 1 a fixed set of short expressions called aizuchi-shi, such as hai, ee, hoo, fuun, hee, soo desu ne, naruhodo, and honto; 2 a repetition; and 3 a short reformulation of a part or all of the immediately preceding speaker's utterance. Although native speakers NSs of Japanese seem to use this highly complex pragmatic feature with ease, there is a great deal of individual variation, which results in a varied impression of individuals as good or poor listeners Ohama, This naturally leads to the question of how well L2 learners acquire and use aizuchi in Japanese conversation. Horiguchi identifies five functional categories: 1 display of listening; 2 display of understanding; 3 display of agreement; 4 display of disagreement; and 5 expression of emotion. For example, Iwasaki formally classifies aizuchi into the following three types: non-lexical, phrasal, and substantive. Substantive aizuchi are an open class of expressions with full referential content. Mizutani , , , describes where to use them from the speaker's point of view and states that the listener's use is controlled by the speaker with pausing, 1 because pausing signals the speaker's invitation for the listener to participate. Continuer is a signal of attention and understanding though the listener who uses a display of understanding of content does not necessarily understand the content. Furthermore, Horiguchi suggests that the speaker's weakening of vocal quality, falling intonation, pausing, nodding, and interjectional particle signal the timing. However, they were successful when ee indicated understanding, or continuation. In particular, it focuses on the types of input that L2 learners receive and the output they produce in and outside of the classroom. The remaining data was transcribed independently and the researcher examined all of the data for consistency. The findings of this study show critical issues in teaching and learning aizuchi in Japanese as a foreign language classrooms. They cross-examined one quarter of the data to assure consistency. Strong emotional response can express more than a continuer, a display of understanding, or a display of support can. These studies reveal a lack of classroom-based research but also provide the basis for the design of the current study. In order to characterize them, researchers have studied aizuchi in terms of frequency, form, function, and timing at which they appear. However, foreign language learners have a very limited opportunity to interact with native Japanese speakers or hear aizuchi outside of the classroom. In summary, previous studies of Japanese reveal that aizuchi appear in a variety of forms and serve multiple functions. In addition to the conversation data, the lesson plans and class materials up to the data collection are examined to assess how aizuchi was instructed and practiced in these courses. As background to this study, this paper first reviews studies that have attempted to characterize Japanese aizuchi. This may be due to the fact that the majority of the studies are conducted in Japan and outside of the classroom. Other verbal forms of aizuchi are not included because they are not universally recognized as aizuchi. Support and sympathy is used when the speaker evaluates something, and the listener considers that support and sympathy is needed. In addition, aizuchi which appeared in classroom and office hour conversations are classified according to the following categories: Speaker.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH} Analysis First, the class materials and lesson plans were analyzed qualitatively in terms of overall syllabus type, skills emphasized in the course, types of materials and activities used, and the amount of instruction of aizuchi-shi. For classroom data, two minute sessions of each course, a total of minutes of classroom sessions were videotaped. In terms of use, Mukai and Yang found that their non-native subjects did not use aizuchi to express emotion as much as NSs did. Maynard proposes the following six categories, many of which overlap with Horiguchi's categories: 1 continuer; 2 display of understanding of content; 3 support and empathy toward the speaker; 4 agreement; 5 strong emotional response; and 6 minor additions, corrections, or requests for information. For example, Maynard compared the frequency of backchannels in English and Japanese aizuchi and found the Japanese use twice as many aizuchi as the Americans do, and a similar tendency is also reported in comparison with Chinese and Korean Ogoshi, ; Mizuno, ; Yang, Mizutani demonstrated that native Japanese speakers use aizuchi about 15 to 20 times per minute on average. L2 studies of aizuchi NSs of Japanese are found to transfer the pragmatic features of their Japanese listener behaviors into English, and these are interpreted as frequent interruptions of the speakers' speech rather than supportive behaviors Maynard, Conversely, L2 learners of Japanese are found to transfer their first language L1 listener strategies into Japanese Nagata, ; Watanabe, ; Yang, Although learners tend to become more target-like as they become more proficient, L1 transfer seem to persist even at advanced levels regardless of learners' native languages Watanabe, For example, English verbal backchannels do not have much variety and tend to occur only after a point of grammatical completion Maynard, ; White, As a result, English speakers tend to use fewer verbal aizuchi in Japanese Maynard, Instead, English speaking learners of Japanese tend to resort to head-nodding in Japanese, which also occurs in English conversation frequently Kubota, ; Maynard, ; Szawtrowski, Another notable difference between L2 learners and NSs is that learners tend to misinterpret the functions of aizuchi and use them in a restricted manner. Furthermore, the instructors' use is compared with the learners' use in order to investigate how the teachers' input does or does not correlate with the learners' productions. One of the complications in classifying aizuchi is that one or more features may occur simultaneously Maynard, Thus some scholars limit aizuchi to linguistic behavior Iwasaki, ; Mizutani, , while others include non-verbal behaviors such as head nodding, smiling, and eye movement Kogure, ; Szawtrowski, Verbal aizuchi are also distinguished according to form. Nagata demonstrates that aizuchi can be used with or without a pause, and some aizuchi can initiate the turn-shift. Turn-taking patterns have also been an issue of investigation, concerning differences in patterns among NSs and non-native speakers NNSs Murata, Komuro compared NSs and learners of Japanese turn-taking patterns and concluded that L2 learners' patterns were different from those evident in conversations between NSs. The minor addition and clarification and request for confirmation is a new category and can be considered as part of a negotiation move. Although aizuchi generally do not trigger a shift in turn, recent research shows that some aizuchi expressions may function to enable the speaker to relinquish the turn. This can be achieved by nonverbal means such as eye and head movement, or even silence, or short phrases such as mmhm, uh-huh, and yeah White, These supportive behaviors are called aizuchi Mizutani, , backchannel responses Yngve, , or continuer and assessment Schegloff, Although these terms overlap in meaning, their meaning and function vary. These studies have shown that the frequency of aizuchi vary depending on formality, mode of conversation, the relationship between interlocutors, the listener's gender, and age Komiya, ; Kurosaki, ; Miyazaki, ; Sugito, In terms of formal characteristics, there seems to be no agreement regarding the operational definition of aizuchi among researchers. The remaining fifteen minutes, a total of minutes of face-to-face conversation data was submitted for the analysis. For this reason, this study investigates how classroom learners learn these strategies in foreign language learning settings. Secondly, studies that investigate L2 learners' acquisition of aizuchi will be discussed. Yet, there has not been any study which has examined aizuchi use in FL classrooms. Review of literature Characteristics of aizuchi In natural conversations, a listener can take turns by asking and responding to questions, elaborating on or confirming the speaker's statements, or causing a topic shift. The first five minutes were discarded from each of the conversations because the initial part of conversation was somewhat awkward because of the presence of the video-recorder. On the other hand, when the speaker asks a question or makes a question-like statement to the listener, agreement is often used. Secondly the transcribed classroom data was analyzed in terms of activity types, because some activities were so highly controlled that they did not provide much opportunities to engage in spontaneous conversation while others were completely free. Moreover, the way aizuchi is used is affected by a number of social factors. Subsequently, the details of the study will be presented. Phrasal aizuchi are expressions with meaning, such as naruhodo and uso. Komiya found that aizuchi occur every 9. Other researchers propose even more categories such as filling the void Matsuda, and focusing on oneself Szatrowski, In addition to forms and functions, previous research has focused on the timing at which aizuchi occurs. Therefore, the present study attempts to fill this gap. The previous studies of L2 aizuchi use demonstrate that learners acquire aizuchi rather slowly and may not achieve a native like competence in the use of this feature. Maynard states grammatical completion signaled by major clause junctures such as kedo but , dakara so , and -ba if , as well as sentence-final particles such as ne and sa serve as important signals. Sugitou states the falling intonation in the speaker's speech also marks the appropriate timing for aizuchi. In his study, repetitive aizuchi-shi e. This means that foreign language FL learners' acquisition may be affected not only by the learners' L1 but also by input they receive in the FL classroom. The first five categories are similar to Horiguchi's but the last category is not. This is not the case with conceptual aizuchi e. For out-of-classroom data, four students, two from each course, and two teachers in these courses participated in the study. are frequently used when aizuchi is not preceded by a pause, which triggers the shifting of the turn from the speaker to the listener who has just uttered an aizuchi. All of the students in these courses were NSs of English, and only one student in the advanced course was a heritage student. {PARAGRAPH}{INSERTKEYS}Aizuchi responses in JFL classrooms: Teacher input and learner use Yukiko Abe Hatasa Hiroshima University Introduction Japanese speakers use a variety of verbal expressions to express listenership in conversations Mizutani, ; Ohta, ; Yoshimi, Among these, backchannel responses are one of the most extensively studied features, and previous research reports cross-cultural differences where backchannel responses are more prevalent in Japanese than in languages such as English Horiguchi, ; Maynard, , In addition, second language L2 learners are found to transfer their native language strategies when speaking in Japanese Kubota, ; Maynard, Most of these studies have been conducted outside of language classrooms, and we have yet to understand how learners acquire these strategies in formal instructional settings. These turn-relinquishing aizuchi occur mostly at the beginning of the sentence, especially when the speaker is not willing to continue talking and the listener does not know what to say. Native Japanese speakers use aizuchi extensively. Also, repetitions and reformulations occur very frequently in the classroom for a variety of purposes such as classroom drill practice, corrective feedback, and confirmation, so it is difficult to distinguish aizuchi from other types of repetitions and reformulations. Except for aizuchi-shi, scholars differ on whether to include these various forms as aizuchi Horiguchi, ; Ohama, ; Szatrowski, ; Yang, Researchers have also attempted categorize the functions of aizuchi. Data The data consist of video-recorded classroom sessions in intermediate the fifth semester and advanced the seventh semester Japanese courses, and office hour conversations between students in these courses and their teachers in a large mid-western university. Needless to say, learners in Japan are exposed to natural use of aizuchi on a daily basis, which would affect their acquisition of features. The next section reviews the studies that investigate this very issue of L2 acquisition of aizuchi. All of the sessions focused on conversational activities.